JPEG XS is a brand-new, ultra-low latency standard delivering JPEG 2000 quality with 1000x lower latency; microseconds instead of milliseconds. This mezzanine compression standard promises compression ratios of up to 10:1, resolutions of up to 8K plus HDR and features frame rates from 24 to 120 fps.
Jean-Baptiste Lorent from intoPIX shows how JPEG-XS can be used with SMPTE ST-2110 stack. Part -22 of ST 2110 allows for transport of compressed video essence as an alternative to uncompressed essence – all the other elementary streams stay the same, just the video RTP payload changes. This approach saves a lot of bandwidth and keeps all the existing advantages of moving from SDI to IP at the same time.
Based on TICO which arrived in products four or more years ago allowing HD products to support UHD workflows, JPEG XS was also designed for visually lossless quality and maintaining that quality over multiple re-encoding stages. The combination of very-low microsecond-latency and relatively low bandwidth makes it ideal for remote production of live events.
Delivering an all-IP truck is no mean feat. tpc explains what they learnt, what went well and how they succeeded in delivering a truck which takes no longer to fire up than a traditional SDI truck.
A common questions among people considering a move to IP is ‘do I need to?’ and ‘how can I get ready?’. Here at The Broadcast Knowledge we always say ‘find a small project, get it working, learn what goes wrong and then plan the one you really wanted to do.’ The Swiss broadcasting service provider ‘Technology and Production Centre’, known as ‘tpc’, has done just that.
tpc is currently working on the Metechno project – a large all-IP news, sports and technology center for Swiss radio and television. In order to acquire necessary experience with the SMPTE ST 2110 standard, tpc designed the UHD1 OB van ahead of time which has been used in TV production for 6 months now. In this video, Andreas Lattmann shares the vision of the Metechno Project and, critically, his experiences related to the design and use of the truck.
The UHD1 is a 24-camera OB van with all IP core based on Arista switches with non-blocking architecture. It is the equivalent of an 184-square UHD SDI system however, it can be expanded by adding additional line cards to network switches. The truck is format agnostic, supporting both HD and UHD formats in HDR and SDR. IP gateways are incorporated for SDI equipment.
The SMPTE ST 2110 specification separates video and audio into discrete essence streams which boosts efficiency and flexibility, but we hear in this talk that more attention to latency (lip sync) is required compared to SDI systems. Andreas talks about the flexibility this truck provides with up-/down-conversion, color-correction for any video plus how IP has enabled full flexibility in what can be routed to the multiviewer screens.
Anderas spends some time discussing redundancy and how IP enables full redundancy – an improvement over many SDI infrastructures and how SMPTE’s ST 2022-7 standard makes this possible.
The main GUI is based on a Lawo VSM control system which aims to deliver a familiar experience for operators who used to work in the SDI domain. Network training has been provided for all operators because troubleshooting has changed significantly with the introduction of essences over IP. This is not least because NMOS IS-04 and 05 standards were not mature enough during design of the truck, so all IP connections had to be managed manually. With more than 50 thousand IP addresses in this system, AMWA’s NMOS IS-04 which manages discovery and registration and IS-05 which manages the setup and take-down of connections would have helped significantly in the lean management of the truck.
Lattmann emphasizes importance of using open standards like SMPTE ST 2110 instead of proprietary solutions. That allows you to choose the best components and not rely on a single manufacturer.
The learning’s the Andreas presents us involve difficulties with PTP, IP training, the benefits of flexibility. From a video point of view, Andreas presents his experiences with HDR->SDR workflows, focussing in HDR and UHD.
OB vans have been notable early adopters of Video over IP, both in the form of SMPTE ST 2110 and ST 2022-6. The reasons are simple, all new vans are ‘green field’ sites, weight and space are at a premium and many need more weekly flexibility than SDI has been giving them.
In this case study, Hartmut Opfermann discusses design considerations for all IP large OB trucks dedicated for sports, music and entertainment production and explores the decisions that have been made for ORF’s new FU22 OB tuck including the drivers behind switching to IP technology and SMPTE ST 2110 for media transport.
Interesting to note is the proportion of SDI Vs IP in new IP installations. BBC Cardiff, for instance, has a minimum quota for IP-enabled endpoints but isn’t assuming it can reach 100%. There are few IP installations which are 100% IP.
In ORF’s truck we also see that, although the truck is fully based on IP technology, SDI-IP gateways have been provided to keep compatibility with existing baseband infrastructure. Keeping all internal processing in the IP domain simplifies cabling, reduces cable weight but, importantly, enables the use of flexible FPGA based processing platforms – functionality thus depends on software and can be changed on fly.
The broadcast control system provides a single point of control over complex infrastructure of the truck and provides a seamless experience for operators who used to work in the SDI domain. However, configuration and troubleshooting of IP systems requires a very different skillset, so training had to be provided to ORF engineering team.
With the SMPTE 2110 suite of standards largely published and the related AMWA IS-04 and -05 specifications stable, people’s minds are turning to how to implement all these standards bringing them together into a complete working system.
The JT-NM TR-1001-1 is a technical recommendation document which describes a way of documenting how the system will work – for instance how do new devices on the network start up? How do they know what PTP domain is in use on the network?
John Mailhot starts by giving an overview of the standards and documents available, showing which ones are published and which are still in progress. He then looks at each of them in turn to summarise its use on the network and how it fits in to the system as a whole.
Once the groundwork is laid, we see how the JT-NM working group have looked at 5 major behaviours and what they have recommended for making them work in a scalable way. These cover things like DNS discovery, automated multicast address allocation and other considerations.
Well ahead of video, audio moved to uncompressed over IP and has been reaping the benefits ever since. With more mature workflows and, as has always been the case, a much higher quantity of feeds than video traditionally has, the solutions have a higher maturity.
Anthony from Ward-Beck Systems talks about the advantages of audio IP and the things which weren’t possible before. In a very accessible talk, you’ll hear as much about soup cans as you will about the more technical aspects, like SDP.
Whilst uncompressed audio over IP started a while ago, it doesn’t mean that it’s not still being developed – in fact it’s the interface with the video world where a lot of the focus is now with SMPTE 2110-30 and -31 determining how audio can flow alongside video and other essences. As has been seen in other talks here on The Broadcast Knowledge there’s a fair bit to know.(Here’s a full list.
To simplify this, Anthony, who is also the Vice Chair of AES Toronto, describes the work the AES is doing to certify equipment as AES 67 ‘compatible’ – and what that would actually mean.
This talk finishes with a walk-through of a real world OB deployment of AES 67 which included the simple touches as using google docs for sharing links as well as more technical techniques such as virtual sound card.
Packed full of easy-to-understand insights which are useful even to those who live for video, this IP Showcase talk is worth a look.
There are a lot of videos looking into the details of uncompressed video over IP, but not many for those still starting out – and let’s face it, there are a lot of people who are only just embarking on this journey. Here, Andy Jones takes us through the real basics do prove very useful as a building block for understanding today’s IP technologies.
Andy Jones is well known by many broadcast engineers in the UK having spent many many years working in The BBC’s Training and Development department and subsequently running training for the IABM. The news that he passed away on Saturday is very saddening and I’m posting this video in recognition of the immense amount he has contributed to the industry through his years of tireless work. You can see from this video from NAB 2018 his passion, energy and ability to make complicated things simple.
In this talk, Andy looks at the different layers that networks operate on, including the physical layer i.e. the cables. This is because the different ways in which traffic gets from A to B in networking are interdependent and need to be considered as such. He looks at an example network which shows all the different standards in use in an IP network and talks about their relevance.
Andy briefly looks at IP addresses and the protocol that makes them work. This underpins much of what happens on most networks before looking at the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) which is heavily used for sending audio and video streams.
After looking at how timing is done in IP (as opposed to black and burst) he has laid enough foundations to look at SMPTE ST 2110 – the suite of standards which show how different media (essences) are sent in networks delivering uncompressed streams. AES67 for the audio is also looked at before how to control the whole kit and caboodle.
Peter Schut is back in the sixth webinar in Axon’s Broadcast IP 101 series, this time examining timing, namely PTP, for professional essence-over-IP systems such as based on SMPTE ST 2110.
Timing needs to be rock solid in studio settings where many signals are mixed together, so your PTP system needs to be too. SMPTE 2059-2 standardises the use of PTP timecode (IEEE 1588) in broadcast. It’s important to understand how master clocks and slave clocks work, plus there is talk of ‘transparent’ and ‘boundary’ clocks in switches. Getting the architecture right is key remembering that one important different between IP timekeeping and black and burst time keeping is that the communication is two-way.
Peter gives us the benefit of his experience and insight into getting timing right in two sessions, one morning, one evening.
A meeting of experienced minds here at the Pittsburgh SMPTE section talking about the opportunities and challenges of ST-2110. Phil Myers from Lawo talks optimistically about the challenges that can and often have been solved in implementing 2110 whether that be network infrastructure or timing, giving a good primer on the whole topic as he starts the session.
Hugo Gaggioni from Sony, talks about NMOS, explaining what AMWA does and the difference between their IS-04,05 and 06 specifications.
Karl Kuhn from Tektronix then discusses packet pacing, PTP and network architectures. He then looks at how to monitor PTP and see it is working well.
With the panel session at the end, joined by Dan Turk from NEP, there is a free-ranging discussion covering some of the following topics:
Control of IP networks
The limits of IP
True non-blocking switches
Break-even points of IP systems
Split essences & dropping blanking
Network planning for UHD
Handling loss of network on PTP implementations
plus much more!
We’re all starting to get the hang of the basics: that PTP is the new Black and Burst, that we still need sync to make studios work and that PTP (IEEE1588) is standardised under ST 2059 for use in the broadcast industry. So given its importance, how can we make it redundant?
Thomas Kernen from Mellanox and Chair within the STMPE standards community takes about his real-lift work on implementing PTP with an eye on redundancy methods