Video: IP For Broadcast, Colour Theory, AI, VR, Remote Broadcast & More


Today’s video has a wide array of salient topics from seven speakers at SMPTE Toronto’s meeting in February. Covering Uncompressed IP networking, colour theory & practice, real-time virtual studios and AI, those of us outside of Toronto can be thankful it was recorded.

Ryan Morris from Arista (starting 22m 20s) is the first guest speaker and kicks off with though-provoker: showing the uncompressed bandwidths of video, we see that even 8K video at 43Gb/s is much lower than the high-end network bandwidths available in 400Gbps switch ports available today with 800Gbps arriving within a couple of years. That being said, he gives us an introduction to two of the fundamental technologies enabling the uncompressed IP video production: Multicast and Software-Defined Networking (SDN).

Multicast, Ryan explains is the system of efficiently distributing data from one source to many receivers. It allows a sender to only send out one stream even if there are a thousand receivers on the network; the network will split the feed at the nearest common point to the decoder. This is all worked out using the Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP) which is commonly found in two versions, 2 and 3. IGMP enables routers to find out which devices are interested in which senders and allows devices to register their interest. This is all expressed by the notion of joining or leaving a multicast group. Each multicast group is assigned an IP address reserved by international agreement for this purpose, for instance, 239.100.200.1 is one such address.

Ryan then explores some of the pros and cons of IGMP. Like most network protocols each element of the network makes its own decision based on standardised rules. Though this works well for autonomy, it means that there no knowledge of the whole system. It can’t take notice of link capacity, it doesn’t know the source bandwidth, you can guess where media will flow, but it’s not deterministic. Broadcasters need more assurance of traffic flows for proper capacity planning, planned maintenance and post-incident root cause analysis.

Reasons to consider SDN over IGMP

SDN is an answer to this problem. Replacing much of IGMP, SDN takes this micro-decision making away from the switch architecture and replaces it with decisions made looking at the whole picture. It also brings an in important abstraction layer back to broadcast networks; engineers are used to seeing X-Y panels and, in an emergency, it’s this simplicity which gets things back on air quickly and effectively. With SDN doing the thinking, it’s a lot more practical to program a panel with human names like ‘Camera 1’ and allow a take button to connect it to a destination.

Next is Peter Armstrong from THP who talks about colour in television (starting 40m 40s). Starting back with NTSC, Peter shows the different colour spaces available from analogue through to SD then HD with Rec 709 and now to 3 newer spaces. For archiving, there is an XYZ colour space for archival which can represent any colour humans can see. For digital cinema there is DCI-P3 and with UHD comes BT 2020. These latter colour spaces provide for display of many more colours adding to the idea of ‘better pixels’ – improving images through improving the pixels rather than just adding more.

Another ‘better pixels’ idea is HDR. Whilst BT 2020 is about Wide Colour Gamut (WCG), HDR increases the dynamic range so that the brightness of each pixel can represent a brightness between 0 and 1000 NITs, say instead of the current standard of 0 to 100. Peter outlines the HLG and PQ standards for delivering HDR. If you’re interested in a deeper dive, check out our library of articles and videos such as this talk from Amazon Prime Video. or this from SARNOFF’s Norm Hurst.

ScreenAlign device from DSC Labs

SMPTE fellow and founder of DSC Laboratories, David Corley (56m 50s), continues the colour theme taking us on an enjoyable history of colour charting over the past 60 years up to the modern day. David explains how he created a colour chart in the beginning when labs were struggling to get colours correct for their non-black and white film stock. We see how that has developed over the years being standardised in SMPTE. Recently, he explains, they have a new test card for digital workflows where the camera shoots a special test card which you also have in a digital format. In your editing suite, if you overlay that file on the video, you can colour correct the video to match. Furthermore, DSC have developed a physical overlay for your monitor which self-illuminates meaning when you put it in front of your monitor, you can adjust the colour of the display to match what you see on the chart in front.

Gloria Lee (78m 8s) works for Graymeta, a company whose products are based on AI and machine learning. She sets the scene explaining how broadly our lives are already supported by AI but in broadcast highlights the benefits as automating repetitive tasks, increasing monetisation possibilities, allowing real-time facial recognition and creating additional marketing opportunities. Gloria concludes giving examples of each.

Cliff Lavalée talks about ‘content creation with gaming tools’ (91m 10s) explaining the virtual studio they have created at Groupe Média TFO. He explains the cameras the tracking and telemetry (zoom etc.) needed to ensure that 3 cameras can be moved around in real-time allowing the graphics to follow with the correct perspective shifts. Cliff talks about the pros and cons of the space. With hardware limiting the software capabilities and the need for everything to stick to 60fps, he finds that the benefits which include cost, design freedom and real-time rendering create an over-all positive. This section finishes with a talk from one of the 3D interactive set designers who talks us through the work he’s done in the studio.

Mary Ellen Carlyle concludes the evening talking about remote production and esports. She sets the scene pointing to a ‘shifting landscape’ with people moving away from linear TV to online streaming. Mary discusses the streaming market as a whole talking about Disney+ and other competitors currently jostling for position. Re-prising Gloria’s position on AI, Mary next looks further into the future for AI floating the idea of AI directing of football matches, creating highlights packages, generating stats about the game, spotting ad insertion opportunities and more.

Famously, Netlflix has said that Fortnite is one of its main competitors. And indeed, esports is a major industry unto itself so whether watching or playing games, there is plenty of opportunity to displace Netflix. Deloitte Insights claim 40% of gamers watch esports events at least once a week and in terms of media rights, these are already in the 10s and 100s of millions and are likely to continue to grow. Mary concludes by looking at the sports rights changing hands over the next few years. The thrust being that there are several high profile rights auctions coming up and there is likely to be fervent competition which will increase prices. Some are likely to be taken, at least in part, by tech giants. We have already seen Amazon acquiring rights to some major sports rights.

Watch now!
Speakers

Ryan Morris Ryan Morris
Systems Engineer,
Arista
Gloria Lee Gloria Lee
VP, Business Development
Graymeta Inc.
Mary Ellen Carlyle Mary Ellen Carlyle
SVP & General Manager,
Dome Productions
Cliff Lavalée Cliff Lavalée
Director of LUV studio services,
Groupe Média TFO
Peter Armstrong Peter Armstrong
Video Production & Post Production Manager,
THP
David Corley David Corley
Presiedent,
DSC Labs

On-Demand Webinar: How to Prove Value with AI and Machine Learning

This webinar is now available online.

We’ve seen AI entering our lives in many ways over the past few years and we know that this will continue. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are techniques that are so widely applicable they will touch all aspects of our lives before too many more years have passed. So it’s natural for us to look at the broadcast industry and ask “How will AI help us?” We’ve already seen machine learning entering into codecs and video processing showing that up/downscaling can be done better by machine learning than with the traditional ‘static’ algorithms such as bicubic, lanczos and nearest neighbour. This webinar examines the other side of things; how can we use the data available within our supply chains and from our viewers to drive efficiencies and opportunities for better monetisation?

There isn’t a strong consensus on the difference between AI and Machine learning. One is that that Artificial Intelligence is a more broad term of smart computing. Others say that AI has a more real-time feedback mechanism compared to Machine Learning (ML). ML is the process of giving a large set of data to a computer and giving it some basic abilities so that it can learn for itself. A great example of this is the AI network monitoring services available that look at all the traffic flowing through your organisation and learn how people use it. It can then look for unusual activity and alert you. To do this without fixed thresholds (which for network use really wouldn’t work) is really not feasible for humans, but computers are up to that task.

For conversations such as this, it usually doesn’t matter how the computer achieves it, AI, ML or otherwise. The points how can you simplify content production? How can you get better insights into the data you have? How can you speed up manual tasks?

David Short from IET Media moderates this session with Steve Callanan who’s company WIREWAX is working to revolutionise video creation, asset management and interactive video services joined by Hanna Lukashevich from Fraunhofer IDMT (Institute for Digital Media Technology) who uses machine learning to understand and create music and sound. Grant Franklin Totten completes the panel with his experience at Al Jazeera who have been working on using AI in broadcast since 2018 as a way to help maintain editorial and creative compliance as well as detecting fake news and bias checking.

Watch now!
Speakers

David Short Moderator: David Short
Vice Chair,
IET Media Technical Network
Steve Callanan Steve Callanan
Founder,
WIREWAX
Hanna Lukashevich Hanna Lukashevich
Head of Semantic Music Technologies,
Fraunhofer IDMT
Grant Franklin Totten Grant Franklin Totten
Head of Media & Emerging Platforms,
Al Jazeera Media Network

Webinar: Engaging users and boosting advertising with AI

Honing the use of AI and Machine Learning continues apace. Streaming services are particularly ripe areas for AI, but the winners will be those that have managed to differentiate themselves and innovate in their use of it.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) are related technologies which deal with replicating ‘human’ ways of recognising patterns and seeking patterns in large data sets to help deal with similar data in the future. It does this without using traditional methods like using a ‘database’. For the consumer, it doesn’t actually matter whether they’re benefitting from AI or ML, they’re simply looking for better recommendations, wanting better search and accurate subtitles (captions) on all their videos. If these happened because of humans behind the scenes, it would all be the same. But for the streaming provider, everything has a cost, and there just isn’t the ability to afford people to do these tasks plus, in some cases, humans simply couldn’t do the job. This is why AI is here to stay.

Date: Thursday 8th August, 16:00 BST / 11am EDT

In this webinar from IBC365, Media Distillery, Liberty Global and Grey Media come together to discuss the benefits of extracting images, metadata and other context from video, analysis of videos for contextual advertising, content-based search & recommendations and ways to maintain younger viewers.

AI will be here to stay touching the whole breadth of our lives, not just in broadcast. So it’s worth learning how it can be best used to produce television, for streaming and in your business.

Register now!
Speakers

Martin Prins Martin Prins
Product Owner,
Media Distillery
Susanne Rakels Susanne Rakels
Senior Manager, Discovery & Personalisation,
Liberty Global
Ruhel Ali Ruhel Ali
Founder/Director,
Grey Media