Video: Colour Theory

Understanding the way colour is recorded and processed in the broadcast chain is vital to ensuring its safe passage. Whilst there are plenty of people who work in part of the broadcast chain which shouldn’t touch colour, being purely there for transport, the reality is that if you don’t know how colour is dealt with under the hood, it’s not possible to any technical validation of the signal beyond ‘it looks alright!’. The problem being, if you don’t know what’s involved in displaying it correctly, or how it’s transported, how can you tell?

Ollie Kenchington has dropped into the CPV Common Room for this tutorial on colour which starts at the very basics and works up to four case studies at the end. He starts off by simply talking about how colours mix together. Ollie explains the difference between the world of paints, where mixing together is an act of subtracting colours and the world of mixing light which is about adding colours together. Whilst this might seem pedantic, it creates profound differences regarding what colour two mixed colours create. Pigments such as paints look that way because they only reflect the colour(s) you see. They simply don’t reflect the other colours. This is why they are called subtractive; shine a blue light on something that is pure red, and you will just see black, because there is no red light to reflect back. Lights, however, provide lights and look that way because they are sending out the light you see. So mixing a red and blue light will create magenta. This is known as additive colour mixing and introduces which lets you discover new colour palettes.

The colour wheel is next on the agenda which Ollie explains allows you to talk about the amplitude of a colour – the distance the colour is from the centre of the circle – and the angle that defines the colour itself. But as important as it is to describe a colour in a document, it’s all the more important to understand how humans see colours. Ollie lays out the way that rods & cones work in the eye. That there is a central area that sees the best detail and has most of the cones. The cones, we see, are the cells that help us see colour. The fact there aren’t many cones in our periphery is covered up by our brains which interpolate colour from what they have seen and what they know about our current environment. Everyone is colour blind, Ollie explains, in our peripheral vision but the brain makes up for it all from what it knows about what you have seen. Overall, in your eye, sensitivity to blue is by far much less than that you have for green and then red. This is because, in evolutionary terms, there is much less important information gained by seeing detail in blue than in green, the colour of plants. Red, of course, helps understanding shades of green and brown which are both colours native to plants. The upshot of this, Ollie explains, is that when we come to processing light, we have to do it in a way that takes into account the human sensitivity to different wavelengths. This means that we can show three rectangles next to each other, red, green and blue, see them as similar brightnesses but then see that under the hood, we’ve reduced the intensity of the blue by 89 per cent, the red by 70 and the green by only 41. When added together, these show the correct greyscale brightness.

The CIE 1931 colour space is the next topic. The CIE 1931 colourspace shows all the colours that the human eye can see. Ollie demonstrates, by overlaying it on the graph that ITU-R Rec.709 – broadcast’s most well-known and most widely-used colourspace only provides 35% coverage of what our eyes can see. This makes the call for Rec 2020 from the proponents of UHD and ‘better pixels’, which covers 75%, all the more relevant.

Ollie next focuses in on acquisition talking about CMOS chips in cameras which are monochromatic by nature. As each pixel of a CMOS sensor only records how many photons it received, it is intrinsically monochrome. Therefore, in order to show colour, you need to put a Bayer colour filter array in front. Essentially this describes a pattern of red, blue and green filters above this pixel. With the filter in place, you know that the value you read from a given pixel represents just that single colour. If you put red, blue and green filters over a range of pixels on the sensor, you are able to reconstruct the colour of the incoming scene.

Ollie then starts to talk about reducing colour date. We an do this at source by only recording 8, rather than 10-bits of colour, but Ollie shows us a clear demonstration of when that doesn’t look good; typically 8-bit video lets itself down on sunsets, flesh tones or similar subtle. gradients. The same principle drives the HDR discussion regarding 10-bit Vs. 12 bit. With PQ being built for 12-bit, but realistic live production workflows for the next few years being 10-bit which HLG expects, there is plenty of water to go under the bridge before we see whether PQ’s 12-bit advantage really comes into its own outside of cinemas. Ollie also explains colour subsampling which gets a thorough explanation detailing not only 4:4:4 and 4:2:2 but also the less common examples.

The next section looks at ‘scopes’ also known as ‘waveform monitors’. Ollie starts with the histogram which shows you how much of your picture is a certain brightness helping understanding how exposed your picture is overall. With the histogram, the horizontal axis shows brightness with the left being black and the right being white. Whereas the waveform shows the brightness on the horizontal and then the x axis shows you the position in the picture that a certain brightness happens. This allows you to directly associate brightness values with objects in the scene. This can be done with the luma signal or the separate RGB which then allows you to understand the colour of that area. Vectorscope

Ollie then moves on to discussing balancing contrast looking at lift (lifting the black point), gamma (affects central), gain (altering the white point) and mixing that with shadows, midtones and highlights. He then talks about how the surroundings affect your perceived brightness of the picture and shows it with great boxes in different surrounds. Ollie demonstrates this as part of the slides in the presentation very effectively and talks about the need for standards to control this. When grading, he discusses the different gamma that screens should be set to for different types of work and discusses the standard which says that the ambient light in the surrounding room should be about 10% as bright as the screen displaying pure white.

The last part of the talk presents case studies of programmes and films looking at the way they used colour, saturation, costume and lighting to enhance and underwrite the story that was being told. This takeaway is the need to think of colour as a narrative element. Something that can be informed from and understood by wardrobe, visual look intention, wardrobe and lighting. The conversation about colour and grading should start early in the filming process and a key point Ollie makes is that this is not a conversation that costs a lot, but having it early in the production is priceless in terms of its impact on the cost and results of the project.

Watch now!

Ollie Kenchington Ollie Kenchington
Owner & Creative Director,
Korro Films, Korro Academy

On Demand Webinar: The Technology of Motion-Image Acquisition

A lot of emphasis is put on the tech specs of cameras, but this misses a lot of what makes motion-image acquisition an art form as much as it is a science. To understand the physics of lenses, it’s vital we also understand the psychology of perception. And to understand what ‘4K’ really means, we need to understand how the camera records the light and how it stores the data. Getting a grip on these core concepts allow us to navigate a world of mixed messages where every camera manufacturer from webcam to phone, from DSLR to Cinema is vying for our attention.

In the first of four webinars produced in conjunction with SMPTE, Russell Trafford-Jones from The Broadcast Knowledge welcomes SMPTE fellows Mark Schubin and Larry Thorpe to explain these fundamentals providing a great intro for those new to the topic, and filling in some blanks for those who have heard it before!

Russell will start by introducing the topic and exploring what makes some cameras suitable for some types of shooting, say, live television and others for cinema. He’ll talk about the place for smartphones and DSLRs in our video-everywhere culture. Then he’ll examine the workflows needed for different genres which drive the definitions of these cameras and lenses; If your live TV show is going to be seen 2 seconds later by 3 million viewers, this is going to determine many features of your camera that digital cinema doesn’t have to deal with and vice versa.

Mark Schubin will be talking about at lighting, optical filtering, sensor sizes and lens mounts. Mark spends some time explaining how light is made up and created whereby the ‘white’ that we see may be made of thousands of wavelengths of light, or just a few. So, the type of light can be important for lighting a scene and knowing about it, important for deciding on your equipment. The sensors, then, are going to receive this light, are also well worth understanding. It’s well known that there are red-, green- and blue-sensitive pixels, but less well-known is that there is a microlens in front of each one. Granted it’s pricey, but the lens we think most about is one among several million. Mark explains why these microlenses are there and the benefits they bring.

Larry Thorpe, from Canon, will take on the topic of lenses starting from the basics of what we’re trying to achieve with a lens working up to explaining why we need so many pieces of glass to make one. He’ll examine the important aspects of the lens which determine its speed and focal length. Prime and zoom are important types of lens to understand as they both represent a compromise. Furthermore, we see that zoom lenses take careful design to ensure that the focus is maintained throughout the zoom range, also known as tracking.

Larry will also examine the outputs of the cameras, the most obvious being the SDI out of the CCU of broadcast cameras and the raw output from cinema cameras. For film use, maintaining quality is usually paramount so, where possible, nothing is discarded hence creating ‘raw’ files which are named as they record, as close as practical, the actual sensor data received. The broadcast equivalent is predominantly RGB with 4:2:2 colour subsampling meaning the sensor data has been interpreted and processed to create RGB pixels and half the colour information has been discarded. This still looks great for many uses, but when you want to put your image through a meticulous post-production process, you need the complete picture.

The SMPTE Core Concepts series of webcasts are both free to all and aim to support individuals to deepen their knowledge. This webinar is in collaboration with The Broadcast Knowledge which, by talking about a new video or webinar every day helps empower each person in the industry by offering a single place to find educational material.

Watch now!

Mark Schubin Mark Schubin
Engineer and Explainer
Larry Thorpe Larry Thorpe
Senior Fellow,
Canon U.S.A., Inc.
Russell Trafford-Jones Russell Trafford-Jones
Editor, The Broadcast Knowledge
Manager, Services & Support, Techex
Exec Member, IET Media

Video: How Video is Affected by Human Physiology

How can we make video more appealing to humans? We’ve evolved to live a certain way and this has defined – and will continue to define – our video technologies. MUX founder Jon Dahl talks to us here about the ways in which human physiology drives viewing habits.

Vertical vs. horizontal video, angular resolution and how the typical viewing distances of computers, TVs and other devices affects what resolution we can perceive are all discussed. Jon moves on to frequencies both of audio and video where frame rates and flicker are important and where physics comes into play alongside biology.

Even for the experienced, this talk is bound to bring something new and is a great tour of the fundamentals of the visual perception that our industry relies on and strives to please day in, day out.

Watch now!
Free registration required

This talk was given at Streaming Tech Sweden which is an annual conference from Eyvinn Technology. Streamed on their own video platform, talks are initially available exclusively to all conference attendees, but are released free-to-view during the subsequent year. Free registration is required to watch the videos.


John Dahl John Dahl

On-Demand Webinar: Human Perception Fundamentals – Colour, Contrast & Motion

Thursday February 7th, 10am PST / 1pm EST / 18:00 GMT
Now available on-demand!

There is so much talk about HDR, wide colour gamut (WCG), ‘Better Pixels’ and all the TVs seem to interpolate motion up to 100Hz or above, that it’s good to stop and check we know why all of this matters – and crucially when it doesn’t.

SMPTE’s new ‘Essential Technology Concepts Webcasts’ are here to help and for the first webcast, David Long will look at the fundamentals of colour, contrast and motion in terms of what we actually see.

This promises to be a great talk and, the chances are, even people who ‘know it already’ will be reminded of a thing or two!

Watch now.


David Long David Long
RIT Center for Media, Arts, Games, Interaction & Creativity
& MAGIC Spell Studios