It’s been a great year at The Broadcast Knowledge growing to over four thousand followers on social media and packing in 250 new articles. So what better time to look back at 2020’s most popular articles as we head into the new year?
It’s fair to say that SRT has seen a lot of interest this year. This was always going to be the case as top-tier broadcasters are now adopting a ‘code as infrastructure’ approach. whereby transmission chains, post-production and live-production workflows are generated via APIs in the cloud, ready for temporary or permanent use. Seen before as the perfect place to put your streaming service, the cloud is increasingly viewed as a viable option for nearly all parts of the production chain.
Getting video in and out of the cloud can be done without SRT, but SRT is a great option as it seamlessly corrects for missing packets which can get lost on the route. How it does this, is the topic of this talk from Alex Converse from Twitch. In the original article on this site, one of the highest-ranking this year, it’s also pitched as an RTMP replacement.
RTMP is still heavily used around the world and like many established technologies, there’s an element of ‘better the devil you know’ mixed in with a reality that much equipment out there will never be updated to do anything else. However, new equipment is being delivered with technologies such as SRT which means that getting from your encoder to the cloud, can now be done with less latency, with better reliability and with a wider choice of codecs than RTMP.
With two years of development and deployments under its belt, AV1 is still emerging on to the codec scene. That’s not to say that it’s no in use billions of times a year, but compared to the incumbents, there’s still some distance to go. Known as very slow to encode and computationally impractical, today’s panel is here to say that’s old news and AV1 is now a real-time codec.
Brought together by Jill Boyce with Intel, we hear from Amazon, Facebook, Googles, Amazon, Twitch, Netflix and Tencent in this panel. Intel and Netflix have been collaborating on the SVT-AV1 encoder and decoder framework for two years. The SVT-AV1 encoder’s goal was to be a high-performance and scalable encoder and decoder, using parallelisation to achieve this aim.
Yueshi Shen from Amazon and Twitch is first to present, explaining that for them, AV1 is a key technology in the 5G area. They have put together a 1440p, 120fps games demo which has been enabled by AV1. They feel that this resolution and framerate will be a critical feature for Twitch in the next two years as computer games increasingly extend beyond typical broadcast boundaries. Another key feature is achieving an end-to-end latency of 1.5 seconds which, he says, will partly be achieved using AV1. His company has been working with SOC vendors to accelerate the adoption of AV1 decoders as their proliferation is key to a successful transition to AV1 across the board. Simultaneously, AWS has been adding AV1 capability to MediaConvert and is planning to continue AV1 integration in other turnkey content solutions.
David Ronca from Facebook says that AV1 gives them the opportunity to reduce video egress bandwidth whilst also helping increase quality. For them, SVT-AV1 has brought using AV1 into the practical domain and they are able to run AV1 payloads in production as well as launch a large-scale decoder test across a large set of mobile devices.
Matt Frost represent’s Google Chrome and Android’s point of view on AV1. Early adopters, having been streaming partly using AV1 since 2018 in resolution small and large, they have recently added support in Duo, their Android video-conferencing application. As with all such services, the pandemic has shown how important they can be and how important it is that they can scale. Their move to AV1 streaming has had favourable results which is the start of the return on their investment in the technology.
Google’s involvement with the Alliance for Open Media (AOM), along with the other founding companies, was born out of a belief that in order to achieve the scales needed for video applications, the only sensible future was with cheap-to-deploy codecs, so it made a lot of sense to invest time in the royalty-free AV1.
Andrey Norkin from Netflix explains that they believe AV1 will bring a better experience to their members. Netflix has been using AV1 in streaming since February 2020 on android devices using a software decoder. This has allowed them to get better quality at lower bitrates than VP9 Testing AV1 on other platforms. Intent on only using 10-bit encodes across all devices, Andrey explains that this mode gives the best efficiency. As well as being founding members of AoM, Netflix has also developed AVIF which is an image format based on AV1. According to Andrey, they see better performance than most other formats out there. As AVIF works better with text on pictures than other formats, Netflix are intending to use it in their UI.
Tencent’s Shan Liu explains that they are part of the AoM because video compression is key for most Tencent businesses in their vast empire. Tencent cloud has already launched an AV1 transcoding service and support AV1 in VoD.
The panel discusses low-latency use of AV1, with Dave Ronca explaining that, with the performance improvements of the encoder and decoders along-side the ability to tune the decode speed of AV1 by turning on and off certain tools, real-time AV1 are now possible. Amazon is paying attention to low-end, sub $300 handsets, according to Yueshi, as they believe this will be where the most 5G growth will occur so site recent tests showing decoding AV1 in only 3.5 cores on a mobile SOC as encouraging as it’s standard to have 8 or more. They have now moved to researching battery life.
The panel finishes with a Q&A touching on encoding speed, the VVC and LCEVC codecs, the Sisvel AV1 patent pool, the next ramp-up in deployments and the roadmap for SVT-AV1.
Watch now! Please note: After free registration, this video is located towards the bottom of the page Speakers
AWS & Twitch
Video Infrastructure Team,
Product Manager, Chome Media Technologies,
Emerging Technologies Team
Dr Shan Liu
Chief Scientist & General Manager,
Tencent Media Lab
Streaming is such a success because it manages to deliver video even as your network capacity varies while you are watching. Called ABR (Adaptive Bitrate), this short talk asks how we can allow low-latency streams to nimbly adapt to network conditions whilst keeping the bitrate low in the new AV1 codec.
Tarek Amara from Twitch explains the idea in AV1 of introducing S-Frames, sometimes called ‘switch frames’, which take the role of the more traditional I or IDR frames. If a frame is marked as an IDR frame, this means the decoder knows it can start decoding from this frame without worrying that it’s referencing some data that came before this frame. By doing this, you can allow frequent points at which a decoder can enter a stream. IDR frames are typically I frames which are the highest bandwidth frames, by a large proportion. This is because they are a complete rendition of a frame without any of the predictions you find in P and B frames.
Because IDR frames are so large, if you want to keep overall bandwidth down, you should reduce the number of them. However, reducing the number of frames reduces the number if ‘in points’ for for the stream meaning a decoder then has to wait longer before it can start displaying the stream to the viewer. An S-Frame brings the benefits of an IDR in that it still marks a place in the stream where the decoder can join, free of dependencies on data previously sent. But the S-Frame is takes up much less space.
Tarek looks at how an S-Frame is created, the parameters it needs to obey and explains how the frames are signalled. To finish off he presents tests run showing the bitrate improvements that were demonstrated. Watch now! Speaker
Engineering Manager, Video Encoding,
We’re looking at the most popular posts of 2019 now as The Broadcast Knowledge takes a break over the holiday season. Twitch’s Alex Converse had one of the most visited posts of the year in his video detailing how SRT works. It’s a great technical resource for developers and engineers wanting to understand more than just the highlights of SRT. Did it do well because it was Alex? Because the San Francisco’s Video Tech meet up is a well known part of Demuxed’s community for ‘engineers working with video’ or because its title? Any or all of these could be true and it wouldn’t invalidate it’s usefulness or its popularity. So if you haven’t already, read more about it here, or click play below.
Streaming Video Software Engineer,
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